Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica


Research topics

1.         Reliability of electronics devices and Electron Microscopy

M. Vanzi

Collaborations: Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Università di Padova, CRS4, FEICompany, Magneti Marelli holding S.p.a, Sardegna Ricerche, ELPRO, ENEA, CNES, ESA, Huawei technologies, STMicroelectronics,Portoconte Ricerche, Envitech, Ecotec


2.         Design, fabrication and characterization of Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs)

A. Bonfiglio, . Cosseddu

Collaborations: Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Bologna, Department of Physics of the Macromolecules (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany), CEA-Leti Grenoble, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Biofisica ed Elettronica  Università di Genova, Cornell University USA, Centro Piaggio Università di Pisa


3.         Fabrication and characterization of mechanical and chemical sensors based on Organic Field Effect Transistors

M. Barbaro, A. Bonfiglio, P. Cosseddu

Collaborations: Dipartimento di Ingegneria Sistemistica e Telematica  Università di Genova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Biofisica ed Elettronica  Università di Genova, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Chimica Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Università di Cagliari, Centre Microelectronique de Provence Ecole National Superieure de Mines de Saint Etiennev (France)


4.         Methods and Tools for Adaptive and Reliable heterogeneous embedded systems

P. Meloni, L. Raffo

Collaborations: ST Microelectronics, Università di Bologna, Ecole Polytechnique Fèdèral de Lausanne (CH), Image and Signal Processing Lab. INSA-Rennes, Silicon Hive BV, Universiteit Leiden, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Universit della Svizzera Italiana, Lantiq, Technishe Universiteit Eindhoven, ST Microelectronics, Compaan Design BV, ACE compilers, TU Denmark

5.         Biomedical Algorithms, Systems and Instrumentation

L. Raffo

Collaborations: Azienda Ospedaliera “G. Brotzu” - Cagliari, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna - Pisa, Università Campus Biomedico di Roma, Facoltà di veterinaria Università di Sassari, Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Cagliari, Cattedra di Reumatologia II Università di Cagliari, INFN - Cagliari, TechOnYou – Cagliari


6.         VLSI architectures, circuits and microsystems

M. Barbaro, L. Raffo

Collaborations: Università di Genova, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium), Infineon Technologies Austria, SEMLAB Ecole Polytechnique Fèdèral de Lausanne (CH), CREALAB Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble

Reliability of electronics devices and Electron Microscopy

M. Vanzi

The research activities have been focalized on specific application as:

- 3D Scanning Electron Microscopy: During last few years a method for the recovery of the third dimension from conventional photographs and from SEM images has been developed. The algorithm to retrieve object color and shape using photometric stereo algorithm is used to reconstruct not only the 2.5D surfaces from each view point but also to merge all the views to have the entire 3D and texture information.

In the optical field we have developed a portable device to acquire photometric stereo data in situ (e.g. archeological samples). This apparatus permits to perform all the necessary algorithms to acquire, process and visualize the 3D data, even in presence of ambient light. Very good results have been reached with conventional photographs in many fields as stratigraphy and cultural heritage.

The results in the optical field have been applied in the microscopy world, in particular the technique has been proved effectiveness using a FEG Dual beam FEI Nova nano Lab 600 equipped by a 4 quadrant BSE detector. Details of electronic device cross section have been reconstructed, making evident devices structures.

This technique is becoming more and more popular, and in 2010 has raised the interest of the Space community. 3D reconstruction has been indeed performed on microcraters  from meteoric impact on an Aluminum foil exposed  to  the solar wind during the last Shuttle mission.

A fallout of this new technique is now the possibility to engrave real 3D sculptures of the microscopic objects imaged at the SEM. Thanks to a 3D printer, tangible model of microscopic sample, otherwise untouchable, have been realized.

- Laser modelling and failure analysis approaches: during the last years two different research fields have been consolidated, both regarding the failure analysis and the physics of failure mechanisms of solid state light emitting devices. Concerning the PRIN Project, carried out in collaboration with the University of Padova, the blue and white LEDs on a GaN substrate have been studied, after strong life tests with temperature and current combined stress.

The study of reliability of IR emitting and detector devices used for applications on inertial guide on spatial modules has been carried out in collaboration with the CNES in Tolosa.

New research field started at the end of the 2010 carried out in collaboration with the University of Padova and Huawei (China) on GaAs MIMICs.

Design, fabrication and characterization of Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs)

A. Bonfiglio, P. Cosseddu

Organic Semiconductors (OSCs), joining together the electrical properties of semiconductor materials (with lower but constantly improving performances if compared to most common inorganic semiconductors) and the physical properties of organic compounds (process ability  from liquid phase and mechanical flexibility) are paving the way for a wide range of possible applications such as flexible displays, photovoltaic modules, smart tags. The light weight, simple processability, and mechanical flexibility of conjugated organic semiconductors has recently led to remarkable research efforts towards realizing new (opto-) electronic devices, their manifold known as Organic Electronics.

In order to optimize OFETs performances, a detailed investigation of the intrinsic properties of organic semiconductors has been carried out, and the correlation with the electrical parameter of the fabricated OFETs has been investigated. We used photocurrent spectroscopy to study the electronic density of states distribution in thin films of sexithiophene and an alkylated analog, both at the band-edge and inside the band gap. In another study we have investigated by means of photocurrent (PC) and optical absorption spectroscopy analyses on the electronic density of states distribution (DOS) around the band-edge of pentacene films of different thickness (from 50 nm to 300 nm).

Inkjet printed devices have been realized starting from a flexible polyethylene therephtalate (PET) film substrate.  In this case the employed structure is very similar to the one previously described; the main difference concerns the material employed for the realization of the electrodes. In this case a conductive polymer, namely polyethylenedioxithiophene:polystyrenesulphonate (PEDOT:PSS) was used. PEDOT:PSS is probably the most common conductive polymer, widely used in the fabrication of electrodes for whatever kind of organic electronic device. In particular, it is widely used for the realization of source and drain electrodes in OTFTs, since its work function is pretty similar to gold one, thus not affecting charge injection into the organic semiconductor.

A novel approach for reducing the operating voltage in OFETs was also investigated. Thanks to a special manufacturing process based on the realization of a dual layer that allowed the realization of very thin and, yet, low-leakage gate dielectric, ultra-low voltage OFET operated at less than 1V have been realized and tested.

A different approach for the realization of flexible electronics suitable for wearable applications consists in the employment of cylindrical substrates such as very thin conductive yarns. In this case, the conductive yarn acts as gate electrode for the final OFETs. The second step consists in uniformly coating the conductive yarn with an insulating thin film; this layer will act as gate dielectric for the final device. Different insulating materials have been tested, as Polyimide, Parylene C, and undoped Polypirrole. At the top of this structure a thin organic semiconductor film is deposited and the source and drain electrodes are fabricated. Thanks to the very small diameter (45-60 $\mu$m) and to the flexibility of the employed structure the final device is suitable, alone and/or twisted to another fibre, in textile processes. Different insulating materials have been tested, as Polyimide, Parylene C, and undoped Polypirrole.

Moreover, organic conductors and semiconductors were used in order to realise electronic devices on cellulosic (cotton) cylindrical substrates, especially designed for applications in the field of e-textiles. Thanks to these treatments, it was possible to fabricate different types of electronic devices on cotton substrates, both passive devices (cotton yarns resistors) and active devices (organic field effect and electrochemical transistors, both realised on cotton yarns).


Fabrication and characterization of mechanical and chemical sensors based on Organic Field Effect Transistors

M. Barbaro, A. Bonfiglio, P. Cosseddu

Collaborations: Dipartimento di Ingegneria Sistemistica e Telematica  Università di Genova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Biofisica ed Elettronica  Università di Genova, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Chimica Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Università di Cagliari, Centre Microelectronique de Provence Ecole National Superieure de Mines de Saint Etiennev (France)

Organic FETs have been fabricated on highly flexible substrates and has been employed as mechanical deformation sensors. One of the main features of organic semiconductors is that, when deposited in thin films, they usually form a polycrystalline structure. The typical morphology is characterized by domains of well ordered molecules, separated by amorphous regions, so called grain boundaries. Charge carriers move between localized states, and charge transfer is generally described in terms of hopping transport, which is a phonon-assisted tunnelling mechanism from site to site. This feature makes organic semiconductor thin films very sensible to mechanical deformation. We have performed strain experiments on OFETs using different configurations and different organic semiconductors.

In one case we used a structure assembled on a highly flexible, very thin (less than 2 microns) plastic substrate, namely polyethylenetherephtalate (PET), namely Mylar™. A careful analysis of the pressure dependence of the current also showed that this dependence can be explained in terms of variation in the mobility of the transistor, and we have demonstrated that this effect is correlated to the morphological and structural changes taking place within the organic semiconductor upon mechanical stimulus application. Very interestingly, we noticed that, for applied pressures ranging from -10 to +10kPa, the drain current variation upon deformation is linear and reproducible.  In another study, the sensitivity of OFETs to surface strain was investigated by performing bending experiments. Also in this case, a highly flexible, but thicker than previously used one (200 microns), PET film, which, in this case has to act only as flexible support for the entire structure. In all the fabricated we have observed that output current decreases almost linearly when the bending radius is decreased, inducing a tensile strain on the device surface. Within a certain range of surface strain (strain ranging between 0-2.5%), the electrical changes induced by mechanical deformation were found to be reproducible and reversible.

A novel structure for the realization of chemical sensors, based on Organic Field Effect Transistors, has been developed. Most chemical sensors implemented in OFETs are based on an ISFET-like structure: a counter-electrode, plunged into the solution deposited on top of the dielectric, turns on the transistor and the chemical sensitivity is due to a modulation of the threshold voltage due to the interaction between the dielectric layer and the test solution. In our case, the transistor is separated from the testing solutions and the sensing mechanism does not depend on the transistor structure and properties; however, this structure requires a fluidic system to handle the solutions. The devices structure consists of a floating-gate OFET.  The floating gate has an elongated shape and hosts the OFET at one end and the sensitive area at the other. Measurements can be done by immersing the probe area in the testing solution without involving the OFET and with no need for any fluidic system. This makes the device disposable and easy to test. Each device includes two sensors in order to make differential measurements. The reference and the sensor OFETs share the source electrode and are biased by a planar capacitor, lying upon each floating gate between the OFET and the sensitive area. Charged molecules, immobilized on the probe area, induce a charge separation on the floating gate and thus modify the conducting properties of the OFET channel. This approach has been employed for the realization OFETs based chemical sensors for the detection of pH and of DNA hybridation.

Sensitivity to pH has been achieved by functionalizing the probe areas using either amino or carboxylic acid functional groups. Sensitivity to DNA hybridation has been achieved by functionalizing the sensing area with a single-stranded probe DNA and performing the hybridation step with a single-stranded DNA target that is complementary to the probe.


Methods and Tools for Adaptive and Reliable heterogeneous embedded systems

P. Meloni, L. Raffo

One of the goals of the activity is to define innovative methodologies for system-level design, able to guide designers and researchers to the optimal composition of embedded MPSoC architecture, according to the requirements and the features of a given target application field. The proposed approach will tackle the new challenges, related to both architecture and design methodologies, arising with the technology scaling, the system reliability and the ever-growing computational needs of modern applications.

The proposed methodologies extend the classic concept of design space exploration to:

- Improve design predictability, bridging the so called implementation gap, i.e. the gap between the results that can be predicted during the system-level design phase and those eventually obtained after the on-silicon implementation.

- Consider, in addition to traditional metrics (such as cost, performance and power consumption), continued availability of service, taking into account fault resilience as one of the optimization factors to be satisfied.

- Support adaptive runtime management of the architecture, considering, while tailoring the architecture, new metrics posed by novel dynamic strategies and advanced support for communication issues that will be defined.

Another research topic in this area is Dataflow Programming. Dataflow model of computation is particularly suitable to close the gap between hardware architects and software developers. Such a gap affects time-to-market of today's systems, which need to withstand the high level of complexity required by the market. In this context, leveraging on the combination of the dataflow model of computation with a coarse-grained reconfigurable approach to hardware design, it is possible to move some step towards the possibility of closing that gap through the development of proper methodologies and tools. We aim at enabling the possibility of automatically deriving HDL runtime reconfigurable platforms from a given set of applications, starting from their high level dataflow models. This approach can be applied to several different application fields. At the moment, we have mainly focused on the Reconfigurable Video Coding (RVC) and on applications in the digital signal processing domain.

Finally, Networks on Chip have been object of studies. Network on Chip architectures popularity comes directly from the growing interest around System-on-Chip and Multi-Processor-System-on-Chip techologies.

In a SoC-oriented approach the designer integrates in the same chip different Intellectual Property cores, with different functionalities (ALUs, pheripherals controllers, RAM blocks). The design philosophy oriented to the concept of Multi-Processor-System-on-Chip is even more up-to-date, and surely pushes engineers to study and to improve the interconnect technologies available today . Furthermore the growth of the number of elements that need to be interconnected is starting to increase the negative side effects of classical shared bus architectures, and pose the need for an interconnection system that allows more than one IP to use the communication resources at the same time. For all these reasons the NoC approach appears to be the most promising solution at hand.

In this framework, our research aims to the development of a library of synthesis oriented modules (network interfaces and switches) for the implementation of different kinds of NoCs. The activities have been aimed to validate with low level implementation and experiments, some CAD oriented high level optimizations and algorithms, with special emphasis on tailoring the optimal interconnect structure relying on the knowledge of the application specific environment.


Biomedical Algorithms, Systems and Instrumentation

L. Raffo

Collaborations: Azienda Ospedaliera “G. Brotzu” - Cagliari, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna - Pisa, Università Campus Biomedico di Roma, Facoltà di veterinaria Università di Sassari, Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Cagliari, Cattedra di Reumatologia II Università di Cagliari, INFN - Cagliari, TechOnYou – Cagliari

Biomedical Engineering is a complex interdisciplinary research field characterized by different macro-areas. Among these, Biomedical Electronics is gaining growing importance and visibility due to the possibility to improve the available biomedical instrumentation (integration, miniaturization, digitalization, etc.), to create novel powerful devices (for diagnosis, monitoring and, in some cases, treatment of patients) and to help health care deliverers in their daily activity.

Within this research field, we are mainly working on:

- Real-time processing biomedical signals, in particular ECG and ENG signals. A full multichannel ECG delineation system has been developed and implemented on both fixed and floating point DSP chips, assessing the real-time performance. A complete suite for afferent PNS ENG processing has been developed and implemented on an off-the-shelf floating point DSP platform for the recognition of the stimuli applied to the limb of an animal implanted with intrafascicular electrodes. Further developments are in progress.

- Real-time non-invasive fetal ECG extraction from maternal cutaneous potential recording. The developed OL-JADE algorithm has been improved and deeply studied in order to assess the performance and add interesting features such as the blind electrodes positioning and the automatic tracking of the fetal ECG sources. A floating point DSP implementation has been developed and a complete hardware-software framework based on the dual-core OMAL-L137 embedded processor has been developed and will be tested on animals thanks to the cooperation with the veterinary faculty in Sassari. We are also involved in a clinical trial (of the algorithms) in cooperation with the Division of Pediatric Cardiology of the Hospital G. Brotzu in Cagliari.

- Wearable devices for continuous detection and screening of sleep apnoea disease at home. Sleep apnoea syndrome is one of the most common sleep disorders that may be linked to hypertension, strokes and heart attacks. Embedded in a comfortable glove, the wearable device acquires the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal coming from a standard SpO2 wrapped sensor placed in one of the fingers. Real-time heart rate variability analysis is performed from NN intervals measured in the PPG signal in order to activate an alarm if the number of sleep apnoea events crosses a guard level. Through a radio frequency link in the ISM band, the glove communicates with a internet gateway connected with a remote station for continuous data analysis, monitoring and alarm catch.

- We developed a low-cost tele-home care system based on the Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (DVB-T) technology for the remote monitoring of cardiopathic and diabetic patients. We are always improving this system and a clinical trial is going to be carried out in the next feature. The trials on the field with outpatient clinics (cardiology and diabetology) will show the appeal of the proposed solution for the patients and their perceived advantages compared to more sophisticated technologies providing the same service.

Furthermore, an advanced system for the monitoring of self-managed kinesitherapic rehabilitation sessions for rheumatic patients has been developed. The system is based on a set of custom-made rehabilitation devices equipped with sensors able to capture physical parameters of the patient's movement, and will be able to allow a remote control from the care givers thanks to a GMS/GPRS connection. The system is expressly conceived for the rehabilitation of the hand and has been developed with the Cattedra di Reumatologia II of the University of Cagliari.


VLSI architectures, circuits and microsystems

M. Barbaro, L. Raffo

In the domain of microelectronic design for signal processing, this research activity covers the whole pathway from the conception of the algorithm which solves a specific problem to the description of architectures able to implement it and to the digital/analog design of an application specific device.

The research on vision systems has been addressed to the realization of a device that implements low-level vision tasks such as spatial and temporal convolutions with low-power and real-time capabilities.

In the field of circuits, an industrial project in collaboration with Infineon Technologies Austria was aimed at the development of a digital self-tuning techniques for Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS). Considering a general SMPS, self-tuning techniques are focused on the online configuration of a controller system needed to obtain constraints like closed loop bandwidth and margins. These kinds of controllers generally work like a digital-PID (Proportional Integrative Derivative) action. The problem is to implement a general procedure for self-tuning without knowing the power stage implementation, its cut-off frequency or zero-poles relationships. The first step is related on to understanding the power stage behaviour and than, in the second step, choosing the most suited control. Self-tuning techniques, also called auto-tuning techniques, are also required to compensate some situations of non-idealities like variations on the input voltage or the ESR (effective resistance series) especially in the output capacitance.

A novel solid-state sensor for label-less detection of biomolecular processes (DNA hybridization, gene-antigene interaction, proteomics) was realized. The device was realized in a standard CMOS process, providing fully electronic readout and large-scale of integration of biosensors on a single chip. The test chip hosts 80 biosensors, integrated A/D conversion, temperature sensors. Complete microfluidic flow cell was realized with a PDMS mold and silica capillary tubes. Test results proved the capability of applying the device to DNA hybridization detection.

An implantable electronic neural interface for neural activity recording and stimulation by means of implantable electrodes was designed and is currently under test. It provides full electrical isolation and stand-alone operation including a data acquisition and transmission system. Simulation results show that neural signals of a few of micro-volt can be filtered, amplified and digitalized without significant distortion. This work has been developed in the framework of project OPENHAND (PRIN 2008).

Pubblications 2011

1)         Krucinska I., W. U. Domagala, M. Skoneczna, P. Cosseddu, A. Bonfiglio “Possibility of the Application of Low Temperature Plasma for the Deposition of a Polypyrrole Insulating Layer to Construct a Textile-Based Organic Field Effect Transistor” Fiber & Textile in Eastern Europe Vol. 19, pp. 78-83, 2011

2)         Basiricò L., P. Cosseddu, B. Fraboni, A. Bonfiglio “Inkjet printing of transparent, flexible, organic transistors” Thin Solid Films 520, 1291-1294 (2011)

3)         Fraboni B., P. Cosseddu, Y. Q. Wang, R. K. Schulze, Z. F. Di, A. Cavallini, M. Nastasi and A. Bonfiglio “Aging control of organic thin film transistors via ion-implantation” Org. Electron. 12, 1552-1559 (2011)

4)         Cosseddu P., A. Piras and A. Bonfiglio “Fully deformable organic thin film transistors with moderate operation voltage” IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices, 58, 3416-3421 (2011)

5)         Mattana G., P. Cosseddu, B. Fraboni, G. G. Malliaras, J. Hinestroza, and A. Bonfiglio “Organic Electronics on Natural Cotton Fibres” Org. Electron 12, 2033-2036 (2011)

6)         Orgiu E., S. Locci, E. Scavetta, B. Fraboni, P. Lugli, A. Bonfiglio, “Analysis of the hysteresis in organic thin-film transistors with polymeric gate dielectric”, Organic Electronics, 12, 477-485, 2011

7)         Fraboni B., P.Cosseddu, Y.Q. Wang, R.K. Schulze, Z.F. Di, A. Cavallini, M. Nastasi and A. Bonfiglio, “Stabilization of organic thin film transistors by ion implantation” in press on Physica B: Physics of Condensed Matter, 2011

8)         Basiricò L., P. Cosseddu, A. Scida’, B. Fraboni, G.G. Malliaras, A. Bonfiglio, “Electrical characteristics of Inkjet-printed organic electrochemical transistors”, Organic Electronics, 13, 244-248, 2011

9)         Loi, D., C. Carboni, G. Angius, G. N. Angotzi, M. Barbaro, L. Raffo, S. Raspopovic, and X. Navarro, "Peripheral Neural Activity Recording and Stimulation System", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, vol. 5, issue 4, pp. 368-379, 2011.

10)     Vanzi M, Spezzigu P., Bechou L., Quadri G., Gilard O., Ousten Y. (2011). An original DoE-based tool for silicon photodetectors EoL estimation in space environments . MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 51, ISSN: 0026-2714

11)     Vanzi M, Mura G., Martines G. (2011). DC parameters for laser diodes from experimental curves. MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 51, p. 1752-1756, ISSN: 0026-2714

12)     Cannella E., L. Di Gregorio, L. Fiorin, M. Lindwer, P. Meloni, O. Neugebauer, A. Pimentel, "Towards an ESL Design Framework for Adaptive and Fault-tolerant MPSoCs: MADNESS or not?", Proceedings of the 9th IEEE/ACM Symposium on Embedded Systems for Real-Time Multimedia (ESTIMedia'11), Taipei, Taiwan, October 13-14, 2011

13)     Carta, N., F. Palumbo, L. Raffo, "Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Approach for Multi-Dataflow Systems", ACACES 2011, Seventh International Summer School on Advanced Computer Architecture and Compilation for Embedded Systems, Fiuggi, Italy, pp. 97-100, 07/2011.

14)     Demelas, M., S. Lai, M. Barbaro, A. Bonfiglio, "DNA Hybridization Detection based on an Organic Charge Modulated Field Effect Transistor", IEEE SENSORS, Limerick, Ireland, IEEE , 2011.

15)     Angius, G., D. Pani, L. Raffo, P. Randaccio, "KeepInTouch: a Telehealth System to Improve the Follow-up of Chronic Patients", Int. Workshop on Collaboration Technologies and Systems in Healthcare and Biomedical Fields, part of 2011 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS 2011), Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2011.

16)     Pani, D., F. Usai, L. Citi, L. Raffo, "Real-time processing of tfLIFE neural signals on embedded DSP platforms: a case study", Proc. 5th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, 27 April – 1 May 2011, Cancun, Mexico, IEEE, pp. 44-47, 2011.

17)     Palumbo, F., N. Carta, L. Raffo, "The Multi-Dataflow Composer tool: A runtime reconfigurable HDL platform composer", Proc. of Design & Architectures for Signal and Image Processing (DASIP), pp. 178-185, Nov. 2011, Tampere, Finland

18)     Palumbo, F., D. Pani, A. Deidda, L. Raffo, "Towards self-adaptive networks on chip for massively parallel processors: multilevel quality of service programmability", Proc. of Computing Frontiers, pp. 19, Maggio 2011, Ischia, Italia 1.

19)     Loi A., L. Basiricò, P. Cosseddu, S. Lai, P. Maiolino, E. Baglini, S. Denei, F. Mastrogiovanni, G. Cannata, C. Palomba, M. Barbaro, A. Bonfiglio, “Matrices of inkjet printed OFETs for the realization of artificial robotic skin” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Accepted for publication.

20)     Vanzi M, Podda S (2011). Application of Photometric Stereo in the optical field and Scanning Electron microscopy. Physical sculptures from archaeology to Microelectronics . In: Proceedings of 10 Multinational Congress on Microscopy 2011. p. 715-716

21)     Vanzi M, Podda S., Tatti F. (2011). Implementation of TV-rate EBIC at a Dual BEam. In: Proceedings of 10 Multinational Congress on Microscopy 2011. p. 71-72

Ultime notizie

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